Author Archives: Anissa

Food transfers to young and mates in wild owl monkeys (aotus azarai)

Wolovich CK, Perea-Rodriguez JP and Fernandez-Duque E (2008). Food transfers to young and mates in wild owl monkeys (aotus azarai). American Journal of Primatology 70(3): 211-221
Food transfers to young and mates in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarai)
Christy Kaitlyn Wolovich 1,2,  Juan Pablo Perea-Rodriguez 2 , Eduardo Fernandez-Duque 3,4

1Department of Biology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
2DuMond Conservancy for Primates and Tropical Forests, Inc., Miami, Florida
3Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
4Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral, Conicet, Argentina
email: Christy Kaitlyn Wolovich (

*Correspondence to Christy Kaitlyn Wolovich, Department of Biology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837

Funded by:
 National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship
 Wenner-Gren Foundation
 L.S.B. Leakey Foundation
 National Geographic Society and the Zoological Society of San Diego

food sharing • mate-guarding • monogamy • pair bond • paternal care

Accounts of food sharing within natural populations of mammals have focused on transfers to offspring or transfers of food items that are difficult to obtain (such as meat). Five groups of socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) in Formosa, Argentina were observed during 107 hr to determine the pattern of food sharing under natural conditions. There were a total of 42 social interactions involving food with food being transferred on eight occasions. Adult males transferred food to young more often than did adult females. All types of food that were readily obtained and eaten by all age/sex classes were transferred to young. Adult females also transferred food to their mates. This type of food sharing is very rare among animals and may have social benefits specific to monogamous mammals with paternal care. Am. J. Primatol. 70:211-221, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Received: 1 December 2006; Revised: 12 August 2007; Accepted: 14 August 2007

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/ajp.20477  About DOI

Deforestation – The disappearing habitat of jungle dwelling orangutans

Deforestation means “the action or process of clearing forests.”

OrangsByDoaZooOrangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), arboreal apes found in Borneo and Sumatra, with great shaggy reddish-brown coats, very long arms, and no tail, became designated as an endangered species in 1970. These primates, the largest in Indonesia, live in the think jungle of these regions. Recent reports estimated that only 15,000-25,000 orangutans in total are left in Borneo and Sumatra.

The most obvious threat now facing orangutan populatios in Indonesia is the loss of habitat due to logging operations and deforestation. In addition, fires produced from logging industries have created a severe ecological problem throughout the islands of Indonesia.

Environmental groups in Indonesia have concentrated their invest igations on the Tanjung Puting National P ark on the island of Borneo, which is home to world famous centers to protect orangutans. There they found thousands of cubic meters of timber, including wood from increasingly rare species of trees, being processed at illegal sawmills within the park.
Shrinking habitat means more than simply less food and space for the red apes. It also greatly increases their exposure to poachers, whose preferred method of capturing infants to sell on the black market is to kill their mothers – a crushing blow to a species with an already fragile future. Females give birth to a single offspring every 3-6 years. A baby orangutan
grows very slowly, and although it may become somewhat independent at 3 years of age, it will stay with its mother until she gives birth again.

“A loss rate of one percent per year – which means killing just one female out of 100 – changes the population from being relatively stable to declining,” states Dr. Mark Leighton, a Harvard professor and rain forest ecologist who conducts primate research in southwest Borneo.

As the rain forests continue to decline, the pressures remain. Many of the surviving orangutans thrive in areas of forest far too small to support the population. If the current rate of deforestation continues, the world’s rain forests will vanish within 100 years-causing unknown effects on global climate and eliminating the majority of plant and animal species on the planet.
Paul Jepson, a researcher at Oxford University’s School of Geography, said: “The illegal logging in Indonesia is of global significance; not only will we lose a number of endangered species through the destruction of their habitat, but the loss of the forests will also have an impact on global warming and on climate conditions not just in Indonesia, but across the world.”© Orangutan Foundation International/Environmental<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Investigation Agency
Through education, Monkey Jungle hopes to encourage its visitors to take part in the struggle against the mounting destruction of Indonesia’s lush forests and the delicate orangutans that struggle to survive within them.

Destruction: Large-scale illegal logging is occurring throughout Borneo in national parks that were once deemed free of it

© Orangutan Foundation International/Environmental Investigation Agency

Bushmeat: Poaching trade leads to ape extinction

Deforestation means “the action or process of clearing forests.”

Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) , arboreal apes found in Borneo and Sumatra, with great shaggy reddish-brown coat s, very long arms, and no tail, became designated as an endangered species in 1970. These primates, the largest in Indonesia, live in the think jungle of these regions. Recent reports estimated that only 15,000-25,000 orangutans in total are left in Borneo and Sumatra.
The most obvious threat now facing orangutan population s in Indonesia is the loss of habitat due to logging operations and deforestation. In addition, fires produced from logging industries have created a severe ecological problem throughout the islands of Indonesia.

The Victim: Gorillas are often targets of hunters throughout Africa looking to boost their profits. © Vanermedia

In Africa, where jobs are scarce and hunger rages on in the absence of sustainable nutrition, indigenous people turn to the bushmeat trade as a source of income. They are uneducated and unaware that their daily hunts and kills have long term effects on the gorilla and chimpanzee populations. During an expedition into the forest, a hunter will typically kill the mother of a family, leaving her young behind for hunters to use as transition pets. Babies doomed to live as pets almost certainly die fr om malnourishment, disease, or depression. Chimpanzees have extremely strong and loving family bonds, and if suddenly separated, can fall into a depressed state. In West Central Africa, wildlife provides poor rural families with 40% of their animal protein. However, w ith increases in construction due to the constant growth of the human population, virgin forests are being explored by rural hunters eager for a larger profit. Over-hunting has become a serious challenge to the sustainability of ape populations . Roads that facilitate access to once isolated forests and the increased efficiency of modern hunting technologies all help to fuel the rapidly growing bushmeat trade.

The Victims: Because hunters attack and kill mothers, chimpanzee infants are usually taken in as pets and almost always die shortly after. ©Daniel Beltra/Greenpeace

In the equatorial forests of west and central Africa, a ragged army of around 2,000 bushmeat hunters supported by the timber industry infrastructure will illegally shoot and butcher over 3,000 gorillas and 4,000 chimpanzees this year. That’s five times the number of gorillas on Rwanda’s Mt. Visoke and 20 times the chimpanzee population that live near Tanzania’s Gombe Stream. People pay a premium to eat a larger amount of great apes each year than those that are now kept in all the zoos and laboratories of the world.

The presence of gorillas and chimpanzees throughout the forests in Africa is vital to the continuing growth of the surrounding environment. Ape droppings aid seed dispersal and regeneration of previously logged forests. Trees, like the moabi species, have large seeds that only gorillas can swallow, and therefore successfully disperse throughout the forest floor. Without their large populations to roam across large distances, plant and tree species will eventually die out, creating a ripple effect along the food chain.

Efforts to halt the illegal trading of animal products are slowly having an effect. In northern Congo, the Wildlife Conservation Society is working directly with timber companies to halt hunting of protected species, such as apes, by providing worker with affordable alternative to eating wildlife. However, education is the key to ending a process that has already consumed the lives of millions of unprotected apes.

“It is my firm belief that unless we work together to change attitudes at all levels – from world leaders to the consumers of illegal bushmeat – there will be no viable populations of great apes in t he wild within 50 years” – Jane Goodall, primate researcher and author.

The End Result: The skulls of great apes that were killed as a result of the bushmeat trade ©Rainforest Live


The goal of our adoption program is to provide an opportunity for contributors to familiarize themselves with the monkeys on an individual level. Your support enables us to better care for adopted monkeys, further develop our community education and behavioral research programs, and improve our facilities thereby making it possible to extend sanctuary to more primates in need. In return you can learn about the Conservancy's non-human inhabitants and feel a sense of personal responsibility for their care. When you adopt, you will receive: a color photo of your selected monkey, and a subscription to our newsletter. For adoptions over the one hundred dollar level you will also receive a guided tour of Monkey Jungle and the DuMond Conservancy with a primatologist. NEW: Now adopt online using a major credit card and PayPal. Simply click on the blue button next to the animal that you are interested in adopting. PayPal will make sure that the transaction is safe and secure, and the DuMond Conservancy will make sure that the requested materials are sent to you in a timely manner. Thanks again for your support.

Adopt An Owl Monkey

adopt an owl monkey!Night monkeys, also known as owl monkeys or Dourocoulis, are distributed throught South America and in to Central America.

The Night Monkey is unique as it is the only nocturnal monkey in the world. It is also one of only a few primate species which is strictly monogamous. Interestingly, in this relationship, it is the father which will carry the infant around for up to six months.

They have a beautiful pattern of colors on their faces, as well as brightly orange covered chest found in about half of the species.

Click This Button To Adopt a Night Monkey – $100   


Dumond Conservancy Wish List


Needs & Treats


Monkey Chow (regular, new world, leaf eater)

Peanut butter – creamy only



Nuts in Shells  (any kind, unsalted)  

Baby cereal



Bird Seed

Dried fruit – any kind

Fresh fruits and Vegetables – any kind

Fresh browse (edible branches, stalks such as banana trees, leaves, hibiscus branches, flowers, etc…)





Anti-bacterial Hand soap

Hand sanitizer

Laundry Soap

Dish Brushes/Sponges

Liquid Dish Soap

Paper Cups 16 oz Size / Paper Cups 3-5 oz Size

Paper Towels

Toilet paper

Kitchen cleaner

Tie Wraps


Gift Certificates


Home Depot

Sams Club




Facility Needs


Washing Machine


Paper Shredder


Please send your donation to:


DuMond Conservancy

14805 SW 216th Street

Miami, FL 33170

Please  include your name and address when shipping items, so that we may acknowledge your gift.  You may also email us at and let us know what items we can expect.

Monkey Videos



The Fuzzy’s

These Bolivian owl monkeys (Aotus azari boliviensis), noted for their dense fur, are retired from malaria research. Father, Mother and juvenile are enjoying extracting seeds from a pomegranate fruit. 





More Fuzzys










Warrior, Betsy, Peanut and Crunchy

Warrior (Aotus nancymaae) was found injured on the tracks of Miami’s Metro Rail. Brought to the Conservancy Warrior made a slow but steady recovery and was able to join other owl monkeys and even fathered several offspring.  He is seen here enjoying a monkey style tamale! 





Connie and Spruce

Connie and Spruce (Aotus nancymaae) enjoying night time enrichment. Spruce descends from a group of Conservancy monkeys the “went wild” after Hurricane Andrew  ravished the owl monkey forest. Connie is a retired laboratory primate, having been captured from the wilds of Peru, and then used for years in malaria research at NIH and the CDC. 

For more information about the Conservancy’s owl monkeys, please read Barbara Kings Blog at:

DuMond Conservancy Amazonian Festival 2012

The DuMond Conservancy hosted a festival on Saturday, February 4, 2012 to celebrate the Amazon.This youth led event included Amazonian inspired food and beverages for guests. Participants were also entertained by exhilarating performances by students of TERRA Environmental Research Institute, a Colombian music group and Brazilian samba dancers.

Today rainforests of the Amazon and the wildlife they support are under serious threat. In an effort to educate the public about such occurrences and the consequences associated with them, conservationist Dr. Angela Maldonado of Entropika in Colombia delivered the keynote address.

The crowd was also graced by National Geographic explorer Dr. Mireya Mayor who reminisced on her first expedition to study monkeys in the Amazon.

Scientific displays included podcasts by students at TERRA and dramatic photographs of Amazonian biodiversity and fruit, while other family activities included satellite making and face painting.

The Amazonian Festival for 2012 was a great success and was made possible with support of the Miami-Dade County Department of Cultural Affairs, Cultural Affairs Council, the Miami-Dade County Mayor and Board of County Commissioners, State Farm and the Batchelor Foundation.

The DuMond Conservancy looks forward to seeing you next year!


The following are sites can prove useful to students and other individuals interested in primates.

If you would like to have your site added to this page, please email us at